world\'s best practice in tobacco control
The proportion of women smoking in Singapore is very low.
Sweden is the country with the lowest per capita tobacco consumption in the OECD industrialized countries, but the fastest decline in consumption is New Zealand, 1-
1 consumption decreased by half in 15 years, and adult prevalence decreased by one quarter, from 32% in 1981 to 24% in 1996 (
See Table 1-census data-1).
View this table: View the inline View pop-up table 1-
1 component of the integrated programme, New Zealand, March 2000, most New Zealand doctors quit smoking before the Tobacco Institute (1980), ASH (
Smoking and Health Action)(1982)
Arrangements have been made1984)
Employees working on tobacco.
Between 1980 and 1994, the government has tripled tobacco revenue and halved tobacco consumption per adult.
Until 1991, the government raised tobacco tax rates most of the time, as did 1995 and 1998.
The expensive price doubled, earning 20 cigarettes at an average wage rate from 11 minutes in 1981 to 22 minutes in 1994 and 23 minutes in 1998.
Smokers are now very responsive to prices;
The 1998 increase in taxes caused prices to rise by 13% and store sales to fall by 10% in a week, a result confirmed by a decrease in sales between 1997 and 1999. oas_tag. loadAd(\"Middle1\");
Minister of Health (
Current Prime Minister)
In 1990, Helen Clark\'s smoke-free environmental law banned tobacco advertising, restricted smoking in the workplace, and replaced tobacco sports sponsorship with health sponsorship.
A coalition of 250 voluntary agencies supports the government.
Of the 1996 smokers, more than 90% said they had quit smoking for more than a day.
Despite these attempts to quit smoking, adult prevalence reached 1996.
There are still 99 on-site investigations, 26%.
Added an exit campaign in the medium term1999.
In 2000, it is expected that the government will further raise the tobacco tax and make legislation for smoke-free workplaces, schools and venues, restaurants and ultimately independent bars (table1-1).
The task is incomplete.
A truly comprehensive scheme requires regulation of the cigarette itself.
According to the recommendation of the most recent WHO meeting 1-
2 regulations will involve brand licensing and require manufacturers to fully disclose their processes, formulations and additives to avoid tobacco with high nicotine content, 1-31-
4 sweeteners, or ammonia promote, and reduce toxicity.
In 5-10 years, we expect to implement the \"tax maximization\" policy, which may halve consumption again.
Taxes and regulation can also turn the remaining smokers to less harmful products: either Eclipse-type tobacco—
Hot, addictive aerosol \"cigarettes \"; non-
Or the way cigarettes look
Like nicotine aerosol. References1-1.
Shirley Laugesen mi, Swinburn B (2000)
New Zealand tobacco control program 1985-1998.
Tobacco control 9: 162.
OpenUrlAbstract/free full text 1-2.
World Health Organization (2000)
International Conference on Knowledge of tobacco product management, draft recommendation, Oslo. (
World Health Organization (Geneva). In press. 1-3.
Laublakely T, Laugesen M, Symons R, Fellows K (1997)
New Zealand has a high nicotine content of cigarettes.
Public health representative of New Zealand 4: 33-34. OpenUrl1-4.
Symbol R (blblblakkely T)1997)
Update on nicotine concentration in New Zealand
Public health representative of New Zealand
As with almost all other products, demand for tobacco products declined as prices rose.
The intensity of this relationship varies between countries and population groups. 2-
But from a public health point of view, there is no doubt that in the case of other factors, the increase in the price of tobacco products will reduce the overall consumption of tobacco. 2-
6 There is also strong evidence that the impact of rising prices on young people is particularly high, 2-
7 make tax policy one of the main tools to reduce tobacco dependence, 2-
Tax policies have a significant impact on the overall market for tobacco.
The affordability of tobacco products is affected by the combination of price and income.
The level of tax will affect prices, and the level of tax will be affected by the Public Health view.
Therefore, advocating tobacco tax can change the overall burden capacity and reduce the total demand for tobacco products.
Tobacco tax policies will also have a significant impact on the types of tobacco products used.
For example, taxes are lower in many countriesyour-own tobacco.
In addition, by building the tax structure on the percentage of wholesale prices, the advantage of cheap cigarettes will be highlighted.
From a health point of view, tax increases are less effective if there are no other measures to help smokers quit smoking.
Both expected and actual cigarette price increases encourage people to try to quit smoking or reduce smoking, 2-
But increasing the supply of tobacco-dependent therapeutic products and services will increase the number of successful people.
A good tobacco tax policy will be sought :(1)
The price of tobacco products has been significantly increased, most notably in countries such as the UK where the price of a pack of 20 cigarettes is about $6.
December 1999, 30.
To maximize the impact, experience has shown that consumer prices will rise by at least 20% per tax increase.
Further increases should follow.
The government should make it clear that over time it intends to raise tobacco taxes significantly, enabling consumers to prepare for future price increases by not starting or exiting. (2)
Ensure that tax levels are not affected by inflation.
In some countries
In Australia and New Zealand, for example-
As consumer prices rise, tax rates increase on a regular basis.
The best case, however, is that tobacco tax rates should be raised on a regular basis and raised enough to compensate for the increase in disposable income.
There should be a policy that is at least 3-5% higher per year than inflation.
In countries with rapid economic growth, growth will need to be greater in order to compensate for the increase in disposable income. (3)
Prevent loopholes that allow for a shift to cheaper tobacco products.
The specific taxes applicable to all tobacco products should be high enough to ensure that there are no \"entry-level\" cheap cigarettes.
Tax applicable to rollingyour-
In the absence of health reasons for different treatments, their own tobacco products, non-smoking tobacco, etc. must be equal to the same amount of artificial cigarettes.
For example, this method was tried in Australia and New Zealand, where scrollingyour-
Their own tobacco is taxed at the same rate as standard cigarettes (4)
Linking tobacco tax policies with overall tobacco control policies to show the health base of taxes.
As happens sometimes, for example in Victoria (Australia)
California at the end of 1980, in the early 90 s of Massachusetts, recently in the UK and Ireland, the government should simultaneously announce action in other areas of tobacco control to strengthen health information on tax increases, and make it harder to be described as just a cynical \"tax grab \".
In particular, they should develop measures to increase access to effective tobacco-dependent therapeutic products and services. (5)
Take measures to prevent smuggling of tobacco products.
Complex concealed and open tax marks are required for all tobacco products.
Ensure that product marks allow detailed tracking of any product (
Through the distribution chain.
Increase penalties for smuggling.
Smuggling must be seen as an obvious loss-making business in order to stop smuggling.
Hold tobacco companies and their executives accountable for their involvement in smuggling. References2-5. ↵World Bank (1999)
Control the Epidemic: Economics of government and tobacco control. (
World Bank (Washington, DC). 2-6.
Department of Health and Human Services (1989)
Reduce the health impact of smoking: 25 years of progress.
Report of the director of surgery, 1989. (
Public health services, Rockville, MD, Office of Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control). (
Publication Number of DHHS (CDC)89-8411. ). 2-7.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (1998)
Response to cigarette price increases based on race/ethnicity, income and age groupUS, 1976 -1993.
The sick Mortal Wkly of MMWR stands for 47. 2-8.
Department of Health and Human Services (1994)
Prevent young people from smoking.
Report of the director of surgery, 1994. (
Public Health Service, smoking and health office, Atlanta Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Georgia). (
Publication Number 017 of the United States Government Printing Office-001-00491-0. ). 2-8a. Chaloupka FK (1991)
Rational addictive behavior and smoking.
Journal of Political Economics 99: 722-742.
Scientific OpenUrlCrossRefWeb increases smoking cessation by increasing access to therapeutic drugs: the United States, while working to prevent teenage smoking, accelerating smoking cessation by increasing the number of smokers trying to quit is by increasing the success of these attempts.
Smoking cessation can be promoted by providing more effective treatment.
Treatment increases the success of quitting smoking, and the wide spread and promotion of treatment can promote more attempts to quit smoking.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)—
Provide nicotine temporarily in patches, gums, etc. —
It is an effective way to quit smoking. 3-
However, access to the NRT is often restricted by regulations such as requiring prescriptions, limiting the retail supply of pharmacies, and limiting the ability to advertise drugs.
These obstacles reflect an illogical regulatory framework in which cigarettes become addicted to users and cause unimaginable harm, are basically unregulated and allow access almost without restriction, whereas
Other ingredients in tobacco smoke are responsible for the harm of smoking)
Help people quit smoking effectively by limiting, warning and obstacles. 3-
Experience in several countries has shown the positive impact of making it easier for NRT to obtain.
In the United States, the use of nicotine patches and chewing gum increased by 150% after switching from prescription-only to general sales (
Including sales of groceries, dry goods stores, etc)
In the next four years
Even if the use of all NRT is limited to those who are trying to quit smoking anyway, an increase in the use of NRT will result in at least 1. 14 million additional exits in the United States each year. 3-
The liberalization of NRT sales may also prompt people to give up their attempts.
After introducing the NRT into the consumer goods market in the United States, smoking cessation advertising has increased significantly.
In the year after NRT changed to regular sales, advertising NRT spent about $100 million, which led to a high level of attention and awareness about quitting smoking, it will almost certainly attract more smokers to quit smoking and receive treatment.
If half of the NRT aid exit efforts are new, the NRT generates at least 209000 new exits in the United States each year.
Australia also illustrates the impact of advertising on the use of NRT, where changes to regulations only allow for a wider range of NRT ads.
The use of nicotine replacement therapy has doubled. 3-
The recent liberalization of the French and Brazilian NRT markets seems to have produced similar results.
This trend is expected to reflect a shift in counter-effect regulatory positions that still exist in too many jurisdictions. (
For example, in Japan, the government is interested in tobacco sales, and the NRT is limited to prescribing for smokers who already have smoking-related diseases).
While maintaining a reasonable guarantee of safety and effectiveness, the regulation of NRT must focus on promoting treatment.
Cigarettes are the most professional and intensive consumer goods sold.
Getting consumer healthcare products companies involved in smoking cessation marketing may be the best way to beat the tobacco industry in their own games.
Smoking should be stopped by regulations and smoking cessation and treatment should be encouraged.
Mr. acknodgmentsdr Shiffman Gitchell, with the support of Dunney, will provide consumer health care for China and the United States to consult tobacco control. References3-9.
MC fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, etc. (1996)
Clinical Practice Guide No. 18. (
S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Health Care Policy and Research Institute, Rockville, Maryland, April). (
AHCPR publication no. 96-0692. ); . 3-10.
Hennfield JE, Slade JD (1998)Tobacco-
Drug dependence: public health and regulatory issues.
J53 Food and Drug Law (suppl)77–114. OpenUrl3-11.
Gitchell JG, nitj. m. , et al. (1997)
Public health benefits of over-medical carethe-
Drugs against nicotine.
Tobacco control 6: 30 6-310.
Chapman S in Borland R (1999)
Advertising for nicotine replacement therapy: does it promote more smoking cessation? (
Consumer health care company, Parsippany, New Jersey).
Tobacco advertising and tobacco product display at the point of sale: tazhou tobacco control in tazhou, Australia, has long recognized the importance of reducing or eliminating tobacco product advertising.
State and regional governments in Singapore, New Zealand and Australia (ACT, NSW and Tasmania) have also taken steps to reduce tobacco advertising at the point of sale.
When the Tasman government began to consider banning advertising at the point of sale in 1996, tobacco control advocates warned that the legislation was not comprehensive enough to control or prohibit the display of tobacco products, this will lead the industry to respond to various display technologies that overcome these limitations.
Unless the packaging and carton display are controlled (
Or preferably a full ban proposed in New Zealand later in 2000)
, Cigarette packs can be used to make pyramids, mechanical windmills, entire walls that display materials, ceilings, designs and patterns on the floor, and anything else that creative advertising companies can imagine.
The recent history of point-of-sale legislation has provided many lessons for the Australian states, each of which has learned from the shortcomings of the legal drafting of the predecessors.
The state next to the legislation is warned of any weaknesses and rarely makes the same mistake.
The following are some basic principles that should be incorporated into the draft legislation.
Any form of advertising is prohibited anywhere, including the point of sale.
Price Discount advertising is prohibited (
No signs of \"past/present)—
For example, the price was not crossed under the new price.
Price discounts are attractive for price-sensitive children and teenagers.
Make sure the ban covers all potential and practical gimmicks, gadgets and gimmicks.
Make sure it excludes flags, banners, clothing, mobile phones, wall-hung, carpets, coin pads, clocks, watches, high imitation bags for children, rotating cabinets for internal lighting and color-related colors and themes as well coding.
Lighting for product display is prohibited.
It is forbidden to use value-added marketing means, such as giving products to customers.
For example, lighters, calendars, books, maps, diaries, CDs, toys or cosmetics.
These are particularly attractive to children.
It is forbidden to display together with products sold for children or nearby products (
Toys, videos, candy, potato chips, etc).
Toys or candy similar to tobacco or cigarettes are prohibited.
Audio Advertising and Visual advertising are prohibited.
If possible, prevent misleading statements anywhere, such as \"light\" or \"light.
If possible, the industry is prohibited from making false or misleading statements to retailers on display legislation.
It turns out that this particular provision in Tasmanian legislation is invaluable in preventing tobacco reps from telling retailers that a particular display is legal (if not legal.
This provision has greatly improved the effectiveness of the implementation mechanism.
It is important not to make legislation dependent on subsidiary legislation, such as regulations or guidelines.
Instead, as detailed as possible in the main legislation.
Otherwise, this makes it possible for the tobacco industry to sometimes delay the implementation of the legislation for several years, and the consultation process for subordinate legislation also takes place, which makes the legislation itself vulnerable to lobbying.
Ensure that legislation is easy to implement.
Consult with law enforcement officers during the drafting process and ask if they can foresee any difficulties.
Almost certainly nothing will be observed that is difficult to carry out.
Pass the \"scream test\" point-of-
The sales terms that the tobacco industry hates include: large health warnings without government attributes;
Space restrictions on the size of the inventory display;
Display small numerical limits on the package;
It is forbidden to display cartons or shippers;
Greater packaging is prohibited;
It is forbidden to advertise or display products on vending machines (
That is, only brands).
Tobacco companies like, support and propose anything complex and difficult to implement.
Anything hard to prove
For example, the accused person \"knows\" the crime.
This means that only individual salespeople are caught and charged, not the owner, and the sales staff have a high turnover rate.
There are also some other useful legislation that should be linked or linked to the primary tobacco legislation.
There are three main advantages to the permission of the seller of tobacco products: it allows the tobacco control officer to find the seller
For example, providing education for execution purposes or for retailers;
It ensures that licenses can be canceled if retailers do not comply with display or other tobacco legislation;
Revenue from the licensing process can be used to hire law enforcement officers and provide retailer information.
Notice of infringement (on-the-
On-site fines may be issued by law enforcement officers)
Increase compliance rates, allow prompt and definitive \"penalties\" for violations of the display terms, without the need to initiate the complexity and cost of the prosecution action, and generate direct \"education\" for the relevant retailers
Store notices on legislation should be very large and should include health warnings (
Graphics and text)
As well as information on who is in contact with the government about violations and access to the cessation programme.
The officials nominated in tazhou are volunteers (
Usually doctors, nurses, teachers and other health workers, including-tobacco staff)
Appointed and trained by the department, responsible for the implementation and education work, and the release of the following through legislative authorizationthe-spot fines.
This implementation programme has significantly enhanced community participation in tobacco control activities and reduced reliance on government.
Some objections will be raised by the tobacco industry to preventof-
These may or may not include: tobacco is a legal product;
The customer has the right to see the full scope of the product;
Advertising has no effect on total sales;
Product Display has no effect on sales;
Children are not interested in or affected by tobacco products or displays.
All of these arguments can be refuted using logic and available research, or can be dismissed.
Monitoring of tobacco use patterns and consequences: supervision of tobacco use can guide policy decision-making, research initiatives, and the development and evaluation of intervention programmes.
The ideal monitoring system will monitor the variables contained in the traditional epidemiology model (
All kinds of tobacco products), host (
That is, smokers/users or potential smokers/users), vector (
Is the manufacturer of tobacco products)
And the environment (
Economy, culture, politics and history)
And pay attention to the accompanying host (
Is not consciously smoking). 5-
Although no country measures all of these components in the best way, the monitoring system in the United States is extensive.
Some key components are listed below.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention monitor reagent factors such as toxic ingredients, pH and additives (CDC)
And individual researchers and the federal state of Massachusetts.
The US Department of Agriculture provides data on consumption of various products. 5-
The Federal Trade Commission provided information on the type of cigarettes consumed. 5-
Monitor work monitor host factors.
There are several populations in the United States.
The use of tobacco among young people was measured based on national surveys.
These include monitoring of the future (MTF)surveys5-16;
Investigation of adolescent risk behavior (YRBS)5-17;
National survey of drug addicts (NHSDA)5-18;
National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). 5-
The New York Times is fully committed to measuring tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors.
MTF includes longitudinal components.
National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES)5-
20 measurement of tobacco use and serum cotinine concentrations in children and adults allows Biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
NHSDA data is collected at the state level.
Most states have their own versions of \"YRBS\" and \"Youth Tobacco Surveys \". Adult (
18 years and older)
The survey of National Estimates provided includes the National Health Interview Survey, 5-
NHANES and NHSDA.
Monitoring System for behavioral risk factors 5-
22 and Current Population Survey 5-
23 provide specific national and national estimates.
In each of these surveys, the measurement of tobacco use was used to map the prevalence trends of social population groups.
Since each survey has its own unique purpose, there are a large number of additional variables available for analysis.
Variables of interest include susceptibility to tobacco use, start patterns, dependency indicators, smoking cessation patterns and methods, smoking cessation advice from doctors and dentists, mental health indicators, use of alcohol and other drugs, many other dangerous behaviors, tobacco sources, cigarette prices, general brands, acceptance of marketing, awareness of tobacco control programs, and opinions on tobacco control policies.
The researchers studied the vector.
For example, by documenting public relations, lobbying and marketing activities in the tobacco industry in many states.
The Federal Trade Commission provides national data on industry advertising and promotional spending. 5-
15 environmental monitoring includes state and local tobacco control legislation and programme activities 5-24-5-26;
Access to health information;
And tobacco promotion, price and location. 5-
Assisting the media tracking system will provide a measure to assess the agenda of the print media related to tobacco control. 5-
26 health and economic consequences National Vital Statistics System coordinates data on birth and death registration systems operated by the state. 5-
27 most states collect information about smoking on birth certificates, and some state ask on death certificates whether smoking causes death.
Incidence data for cancer areas 5-285-
29 and hospital surveys show
30 and medical expenses. 5-
It is usually possible to find 31 reports of the findings on the website of each system.
CDC supports data warehouse, state tobacco activity tracking and evaluation system. 5-
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention\'s weekly report on morbidity and mortality, surgeon reports, National Cancer Institute monographs and journal articles also reported 24 data analysis results.
The field of product monitoring for growth can be expanded, especially if companies are required to report brand-specific ingredients and additive content.
Brand-specific marketing data and extended environmental monitoring will also allow for important analysis.
Population-based surveys are usually published between 7 months and 2 years after the data collection is completed.
In addition, the content of the questionnaire is relatively rigid.
Therefore, we will detect and respond more effectively to new trends that are smaller but more frequent (For example, bi-
Weekly or monthly)
Evaluate people\'s reactions to new products and activities. Occasional (
About every five years)
A longitudinal survey of the initiation and withdrawal of Natural History will increase our understanding of these dynamic processes. References5-13.
New Orleans CT, Slade jolestan CT, Slade J (1993)Preface.
Nicotine addiction: Principle and management.
New Orleans CT, Slade J (
Oxford University Press, New York), ix–xi. . 5-14. ↵5-15. ↵5-16. ↵5-17. ↵5-18. ↵5-19. ↵5-20. ↵5-21. ↵5-22. ↵5-23.
Shogerlach KK, Shopland DR, Hartman AM, Gibson JT, Pechacek TF (1997)
Workplace smoking policy in the United States: Results of a national survey of more than 100,000 workers.
Tobacco control 6: 199-206.
OpenUrlAbstract5-24. ↵5-25. ↵5-26.
Hartman A grobad B and others. (1999)
Smoking cessation intervention in the United States: Conceptual framework and evaluation design.
Evaluation Review 23: 259-280.
OpenUrlAbstract/free full text Text5-27. ↵5-28. ↵5-29. ↵5-30. ↵5-31.
Smoke-free public space: traditional tobacco control work in California is for smokers (
Smoking cessation, tax increase, for example)
Or the tobacco industry (
Such as advertising restrictions).
The difficulty with these approaches is that smokers have become addicted to nicotine and have, to some extent, accepted the reasonableness that tobacco advertising offers them, and the tobacco industry has done a good job of frustrating regulation.
While California\'s tobacco control program contains some traditional elements, it takes a different approach.
They focused their attention onsmokers.
California movement in early 1990s
When it works-
The harm of smokers to second-hand smoke and the reputation of the tobacco industry. 6-
32 tobacco consumption declined sharply during this period, 6-
33 years faster than anywhere in the world. The non-
After all, smokers are not addicted to nicotine and do not accept the tobacco industry as part of their personal lives.
The majority of smokers. Non-
Smokers oppose secondhand smoke.
The problem is, normally
Smokers and their political leaders are not aware of this strong social consensus.
This fact, coupled with the positive actions of the tobacco industry, challenges scientific evidence of non-communicable diseases caused by involuntary smokingsmokers6-
34 and claim that the law of clean indoor air will cause economic confusion, 6-
35 slowed the spread of clean indoor air laws, policies and regulations.
Most progress in clean indoor air law in the United States and North America has been made at the local level, where the tobacco industry is politically weakest. 6-
36 local implementation of the Clean Indoor Air Law also provides a powerful tool to attract and educate the public in the battle of inevitable legal passage.
The debate also educated the public about the law and promoted its implementation after it was passed. 6-
Formulate a clean indoor air law (
And education programs on the health hazards of second-hand smoke)
More attractive to a wider range of people than those targeted at smoking minorities. Moreover, non-
Smokers are more willing to receive education about the dangers of passive smoking than smokers. Non-
It is also easier for smokers to organize for the inevitable political struggle, because it is good for them to join this struggle --clean air.
The tobacco industry\'s claims about economic chaos have never been confirmed by objective data. 6-
38. The biggest threat to clean indoor air policy is the promulgation of weak states (or federal)laws that pre-empt (take away)
The right of the community to develop local tobacco control legislation. Pre-
The central strategy of the tobacco industry to crack down on clean indoor air laws is \"pre-emptive\" and should be resisted. 6-
39 The reason for creating smoke-free workplaces, public places and families is to protect non-smoking
Smokers discharge toxins from second-hand smoke and do not affect the prevalence of smoking.
Because it reduces the social acceptability of smoking, however, the Clean Indoor Air Policy reduces daily cigarette consumption by about 20%, 6-406-
41 by reducing the combination of smoking prevalence and consumption among continuing smokers.
To achieve such a large reduction in consumption, it is necessary to increase taxes and double the price of cigarettes.
Clean indoor air is the most cost-effective strategy to achieve a vision of smoke-free society by former American surgeon C Everett Koop. References6-32.
Bal bal DG, Kizer KW, Felten PG, Villar HN, Niemeyer D (1990)
California reduces tobacco consumption: a statewide backlash
Tobacco use movement.
JAMA 264: 1570-1574.
Openurlcross Web Science6-33.
Pierce JP, Gilpin EA, Emory SL, White M, Rosbrook B, Berry C (1998)
Has the California Tobacco Control Program reduced smoking?
JAMA 280: 893-899.
Openurlcross Web Science6-34.
Glantz S. ong E.
The tobacco industry plans to disrupt a second-hand smoke study by the International Agency for Cancer Research. The news of the Lancet. . 6-35.
Glaz, Charles Worth (1999)
Non-smoking restaurant regulations pass before and after travel and hotel income.
JAMA 281: 1911-1918.
Openurlcross Web Science6-36.
Glantz S of Balbach E (2000)
Tobacco War: War within California. (
University of California, Berkeley Press. 6-37. ↵Glantz S (1997)
Back to Basics: get the smoke-free workplace back on track [editorial].
Tobacco control 6: 164-166. OpenUrlPubMed6-38. ↵Glantz SA.
The non-smoking restaurant regulations do not affect the restaurant business. Period. [editorial].
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice; 5:vi–ix. . 6-39.
Siegel M. , Carol J. , Jordan J. (1997)
Preemptive right in tobacco control.
A review of emerging public health issues.
JAMA 278: 858-863.
Openurlcross Web Science6-40.
Chapman chapman S, Borland R, Scollo M, Bronson R, Dominique Roa, Woodward S (1999)
Effects of smoke-
Free workplaces reduce cigarette consumption in Australia and the United States.
J Public Health 89: 1018-1023 in the morning.
Openurlcross Web Science6-41.
Woodruff T, Rosbrook B, Pierce J, grants S (1993)
Cigarette consumption in smoke-free workplaces in California is low.
Arch Intern Med 153: 1485-1493.
Scientific Research Network: investigation can achieve various tobacco control goals.
Focus on the plight of individual victims through the media, rather than abstract statistics, to effectively convey the dangers of tobacco use; (2)
Forcing the manufacturer to raise the price to pay the cost of liability, thus hindering the use of the product; (3)
Reducing the political power of informants by publishing their testimony and internal criminal documents to remove the legitimacy of the tobacco industry; (4)
Compensation for losses caused by tobacco paid by individuals, families and third parties; (5)
Obtaining a judicial order requiring the defendant to change his practice; and(6)
Forcing manufacturers, retailers, employers and others to change their practices \"voluntarily\" to minimize future compensatory and punitive damages. 7-
In 1954, 42 tobacco lawsuits began in the United States, and more than 1000 cases have been filed since then.
In addition to the case of \"bread and butter\" involving smokers (
Or her survivors)
Sue manufacturers, in the past 10 years,
Cases of lung cancer in smokers, representing collective action by smokers and non-smokers
Smokers, third-party reimbursement cases and non-
Cases of smoking in employers and public places.
Some of the most famous national reimbursement cases have been resolved.
Several cases, including several punitive damages awards, were heard in the court.
Most cases are either voluntarily suspended or lost (
Usually in the preliminary stage)
Or still in progress.
Nevertheless, the experience in the United States is quite extensive, which means that best practices for most types of litigation can be found there. 7-
43. The first goal, the danger of communication, was even achieved through public losses, many of which were lost.
Even if the jury, the media and the public decide that the smoker should lose because she \"knows\" the danger, it is \"stupid\" to continue smoking in the face of the danger, and therefore, this in itself is a strong lesson for smokers and potential smokers.
By bringing in many individual cases in each country, this lesson can be learned to the maximum extent.
The national reimbursement case shows the second goal-
Drive up prices and reduce consumptionCan be achieved.
In the year after the industry settled with 50 states, cigarette prices rose 40% and consumption fell 10%. 7-
44 this benefit can only be obtained if a lawsuit is filed in its own country.
The heroic efforts of a Minnesota state lawyer to achieve a third goal through the public release of more than 35 million pages of documents have been used in several countries to expose the conspiracy of the industry and to bring public opposition.
Lawsuits or official investigations by government agencies outside the United States may reveal more relevant documents.
Although countries have already received substantial compensation for medical expenses arising from their tobacco, most countries have not invested in effective tobacco control programmes.
While the fourth goal is achieved through compensation, tobacco control supporters need to participate in the resolution of public cases if the money is to be used most effectively.
Similarly, while the \"master settlement agreement\" between 46 states and industries includes judicial enforceable orders for the termination of billboard advertising and some other practices, if tobacco control supporters are involved in the negotiations, the fifth goal may be achieved in a more comprehensive way.
Finally, with Philip Morris starting to discuss the possibility of acceptance of regulation in March 2000, the relentless pressure of litigation seems to have pushed the sixth goal forward.
While negotiations are appropriate, the possibility of future litigation should not be abandoned, but rather the industry concessions that may disappear. 7-45References7-42. ↵Daynard RA (1988)
Tobacco liability litigation as a cancer control strategy.
80: Cancer patients aged 9-11.
Costa Daynard RA, Bates, Francey N (2000)
Tobacco lawsuits around the world
BMJ 320: 111-113.
Complete Text7-OpenUrlFREE44. ↵Hall K.
Tobacco could be hit hard in 2000.
Greensboro reported on January 16, 2000: 5. . 7-45.
Denard LA, Romer R (1998)
A year of dangerous life: a global reconciliation for tobacco-controlled communities.
Public Health report 113: 488-497.
OpenUrlPubMedWeb of ScienceMass media activities: Australia, the UK, the United States, in the past few decades
In selected states of the United States as well as in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada and other countries, the smoking media campaign is used as part of a comprehensive tobacco control campaign.
It is difficult to choose \"best practices\" because each activity has chosen different goals, strategies and information.
Several prominent activities are highlighted below: adult University of Australia: \"Every cigarette will cause you harm \"(
The SeeThis 1997 campaign provides smokers with new information about the dangers of tobacco use, uses graphic images to convey the dangers, and highlights the direct harm caused by tobacco.
The advertisement is very realistic, difficult to play, and memorable.
They were adapted to be in Massachusetts and pre-and post-
The survey found that they were effective in raising awareness of the risk of heart disease and stroke and in increasing the attempts and intentions of smokers to quit smoking.
It has also been used in Poland, Singapore and New Zealand.
UK: John Cleese Quitline advertises in the UK, and a series of advertisements are made by actor John Cleese, who rely on humor to teach exit techniques and promote Quitline.
The campaign is very effective as calls for exit are high.
Public opinion American Heritage Foundation: The advertisement \"body pack\" is characterized by a group of young people throwing thousands of body bags on the doorstep of Philip Murray\'s New York headquarters.
The target is young people, but it will have a greater impact on the public.
Will it be?
The ad was withdrawn due to concerns that it violated the provisions of the main settlement agreement banning ads that denigrate the tobacco industry.
The Florida campaign on which the ad was based has led to a significant decline in teen smoking.
California: the \"Board\" ad launched the California campaign to showcase a room full of smoke filled with laughter from tobacco executives who thought they needed new smokers to replace those technically
Promote California to become a classic at the forefront of the world tobacco media campaign.
The \"Pam\" movement is a small \"Pam\" movement.
A documentary about the 6-30 second ad of Pam Laffin, 27, she received a lung transplant to treat her swelling.
The campaign is aimed at a real person who has suffered the terrible consequences of tobacco use.
Pam is young enough, and her situation is related to her youth.
The advertisement was done in 18 minutes.
School videos supported by the curriculum, watched by thousands of school children across the state.
A recent study found that young people exposed to the Massachusetts media campaign were 50% less likely to smoke than non-smoking young people. 8-
Philip Morris: Youth
The $100 million public relations campaign used a series of ads, including the fact that angel-like children told their more rebellious companions to \"think \". Don\'t Smoke.
\"Information about the consequences of smoking did not appear.
This overly simple message could backfire on high-risk young people by turning the stinking egg marl Road into forbidden fruit.
Information is mixed for young people, but PR is good for PM. References8-46.
Bena L Segal M (2000)
The impact of the non-smoking media campaign on established smoking progress: results of a longitudinal Youth Study.
J Public Health 90: 380-386 in the morning.
Science education youth exposure to tobacco the efforts of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Protecting children from tobacco is worth following.
On August 1996, the FDA announced jurisdiction over tobacco products.
These regulations are comprehensive, including a state ban on the sale of tobacco to minors under the age of 18, and any customer under the age of 27 will need photos to prove the age, the minimum packaging size of 20 cigarettes, eliminated all cigarette vending machines available to minors, self-help display is prohibited, free sampling is prohibited, advertisements are restricted in black and white \"tombstone\" format, and promotional items are canceled.
The adverse court ruling restricted the FDA from imposing restrictions only on the sale of tobacco to minors.
In 1997, the FDA signed contracts with officials in eight states to conduct 5208 compliance checks using juvenile bait.
In the year 1998, 43 ÷ 371 FDA inspections were conducted in 28 states, and 93 ÷ 071 inspections were conducted in 43 states in 1999.
The FDA currently has contracts with 53 states and territories for 10 000-20 000 compliance checks per month.
According to my estimate, the number of tobacco retailers in the United States has just exceeded 500000.
The first attack was officially warned.
Secondly, a civil fine of $250 for the second offence, a fine of $1500 for the third offence, a fine of $5000 for the fourth offence and a fine of $ for the fifth offence.
Retailers with first-time offenders will repeat their crimes many times.
Until they pass.
The FDA has sought more than 4300 penalties, and retailers have paid more than US dollars.
Portable computers, the Internet, and custom software will soon enable local inspectors to pass on the results of inspections to the FDA on a daily basis.
The results of the first 14000 000 check are now available on the FDA website (www. fda. gov).
I think the FDA\'s efforts are worthy of recognition for many reasons.
First of all, these regulations are comprehensive and involve free sampling, self-service, minimum packing size and vending machines, all of which are important factors in providing tobacco to minors.
Second, they recognize that there are many advantages over criminal prosecution in civil prosecution against violators.
Third, they have shown thoughtful and strong initiative in the implementation of such a complex and effective implementation programme.
Fourth, according to bureaucratic standards, they must consider the speed of lighting.
Fifth, despite the lack of support from Congress in terms of funding and a clear mandate, they have done all that.
Of course, it would not be of any benefit not to acknowledge the pioneering efforts of local community activists such as Woodridge, Illinois, to establish an implementation plan and experience for the FDA program.
States such as Florida and Vermont that have established a statewide law enforcement program are also worthy of recognition.
What is very worrying is the fate of the FDA regulations and the implementation plan, which is now the responsibility of the US Supreme Court.
If the court finds that Congress does not intend that the FDA has the authority to regulate tobacco, the regulatory and enforcement plan will disappear overnight.
With the introduction of a bill establishing FDA tobacco jurisdiction, the battle will be transferred to Congress.
Then, we will see how influential the tobacco industry is.
Government regulators in other countries should take a closer look at the achievements of the us fda.
The authors of this contribution declined to nominate \"the best in the world\" tobacco taxing countries, arguing: there is no consensus on the minimum ideal level of proportional tax;
No country will increase taxes on a regular basis as disposable income increases;
No country has invested enough in price income protection.
While the UK currently has the highest tax rate, smuggled products are everywhere, making the legal price of tobacco almost irrelevant. —
The writing of this report is supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation through the ImpacTeen project funded by the University of Illinois in Chicago (
Chief investigator Frank chaluka).
Football Notes funded by the National Cancer Institute61021.