Juno is closing in on Jupiter
Its mass is more than twice the sum of all other planets and is supreme.
It\'s the most influential member of our planetary family. after the sun.
Jupiter could throw an asteroid on Earth.
Building materials and Uranus and Neptune to the heart of the planet.
It\'s also a huge time capsule, a gas ball, and that\'s the case when planets formed more than 4 billion years ago.
However, despite more than four centuries of rigorous scrutiny, including Jupiter, scientists still don\'t know much about it.
Thick clouds cover up what happened deep inside the Earth.
NASA will arrive in this huge world in July 4 and will soon break through the haze.
\"We will see under the cloud top for the first time,\" said Scott Bolton, a planetary scientist at the Southwest Institute in San Antonio and head of Juno\'s mission.
\"We don\'t know what Jupiter looks like at all.
\"Juno\'s name comes from Jupiter\'s wife, a goddess who peeps through the veil of the clouds and sees the true nature of God.
Launched on August 5, 2011, the detector has traveled about 2.
It took 20 months to carefully observe the gas giant on a 8 billion-kilometer track.
If all goes well, how much water is lurking under the cloud, drawing a map inside Jupiter, allowing humans to observe the polar regions of the Earth for the first time, and allowing humans to observe the polar regions of the Earth for the first time.
Jupiter is no stranger to it, but most of them are coming and leaving soon.
Many detectors use Jupiter\'s gravity on their way to the solar system.
Even the Ulysses spacecraft heading to the Sun used Jupiter to be thrown at the poles of the sun in 1992.
Where possible, the probe passes.
Arriving at Jupiter in 1995, Galileo was the only spacecraft.
But there are some technical difficulties.
Faulty Antenna, broken recorder
Forcing Galileo to spend most of his time looking at the 4 largest of Jupiter\'s 67 satellites, rather than the planet itself.
\"Returning to Jupiter and really studying Jupiter is an urgent need,\" said Jonathan ruining, a planetary scientist at Cornell University . \".
Jupiter is extreme in every way.
\"I often think this is a planet that takes steroids,\" Bolton said . \".
If Jupiter is a hollow shell, about 1,000 of the Earth will be squeezed inside.
Despite its large size, it is the fastest-spinning planet in the solar system: It lasts less than 10 hours a day.
Although at least one storm has been raging for centuries, the storm has come and gone in a turbulent atmosphere.
Its famous big red dot, more than twice the storm of the Earth, has taken place at least in 150.
The temperature near Jupiter\'s core may exceed 20,000 degrees Celsius.
More than three times hotter than the surface of the sun.
Although Jupiter is mainly composed of light elements hydrogen and helium, it is 318 times the mass of the Earth.
The weight of all gases creates pressure near the center, millions of times the pressure people experience.
On the surface of the Earth, the atmosphere has a 14 per square inch.
7 pounds of the force
\"It\'s like four people standing on your shoulders,\" said Fran Bagra, a planetary scientist at the University of Colorado at Boulder.
You can\'t feel it because you are used to it.
At Jupiter, the pressure on the top of the cloud can make people feel comfortable.
But when you fall
You will continue to fall because there is no surface to stand on
You are under great pressure.
Imagine replacing four shoulders-
Bagenal said, \"an elephant stands on a heel and balances people\'s relationship with thousands of elephants.
\"Most of what scientists know about Jupiter comes from staring at its clouds with telescopes and spacecraft;
Most of the interior is reserved for speculation.
There may be a solid core, a seed for the growth of a planet --
Or maybe not.
There may be an ocean of metal fluid hydrogen spinning around the core, a huge electrical conductor that produces Jupiter\'s far away
Reach the magnetic field.
A large amount of water vapor may be stored under the clouds.
These are the mysteries that Juno will investigate.
They talked about how Jupiter works today and how the planet came together first.
6 billion years ago.
Researchers believe that when Jupiter is formed.
Most of Jupiter\'s gas is from-
Samples of materials spinning around the baby\'s Sun, now stored on a planetWarehouse size
These gases can tell researchers where planets form and what the environment of the early solar system looks like.
\"Water plays a key role in the formation of the Earth,\" Bagenal said . \".
Away from the heat of the Sun, the temperature is cold enough that water can freeze and provide solid particles that many giant planets can grow.
The star could have been a rock and water ice hockey at first, with several times the mass of the Earth, and then attracted all the hydrogen and helium nearby to form a huge planet.
\"We really don\'t know until we measure the water,\" Bagenal said . \".
The Galileo spacecraft has plenty of water in Jupiter\'s atmosphere.
When it approaches the planet, Galileo, which measures temperature, pressure, and chemical abundance.
The probe worked flawlessly and dropped much deeper than the researchers hoped.
But it went in an unlucky place and its moisture measurement became dry.
Galileo\'s probe fell into what researchers call a \"hot spot\", a piece of open space in the clouds, where hot air flows drag dry air into the depths of the atmosphere.
\"They entered the Sahara Desert of Jupiter,\" Bolton said . \"
The probe stopped firing before traveling deep enough to get real measurements of Jupiter\'s water.
NASA scientists think they should try again, and perhaps their mission is to place multiple probes around Jupiter and push it to a greater depth, Bolton said.
\"But it\'s a very expensive and challenging proposition.
Bolton and his colleagues came up with another idea, the Juno mission.
Jupiter emits microwave radiation as it continues to cool from its long termago formation.
Moreover, water performs well in absorbing specific microwave frequencies.
If a spacecraft is able to orbit Jupiter and measure to what extent these frequencies are absorbed, the researchers can calculate how much HO is hidden under the clouds.
To measure microwave, Juno will cycle multiple times on Earth and record the strength of multiple bands.
However, light is water and does not show how the Earth was born.
For the rest of the story, researchers need to know if Jupiter has a solid core.
One theory about how giant planets are formed is that they start with seeds of rocks and ice that attract an expanded atmosphere.
Another idea is that when a mass of hydrogen and helium collapses under their own weight, they form, completely skipping the formation of the solid core.
Juno can resolve this debate.
When the spacecraft rotates around the planet, it accelerates and slows down as Jupiter\'s gravity changes subtly from one place to another.
By tracking these acceleration, the researchers will be able to figure out how the mass is distributed internally, including whether the mass is concentrated in the core.
Bolton said: \"We will enter a very dangerous area, probably the most dangerous area in the solar system, in addition to making diving bombs under the sun. \"High belt
Energy radiation and charged particles around the Earth
A belt that is not friendly to spaceship electronics.
To survive, Juno\'s instrument is sealed at 200-
Kg titanium vault, speaks to the outside world by shielding a serious cable.
\"We are like an armored tank going to Jupiter,\" Bolton said . \".
The tank comes with a, magnetic meter, plasma and particle detector, microwave sensor and radio antenna.
The plan is to get close to the earth again and then get away from it quickly.
Once Juno enters the regular track, it will take 14 days for each track.
Most of the time will be spent away from the Earth, away from the radiation belt.
Due to the rotation of the Earth, each time the Juno dives in, it scans a different Meridian.
During these deep dives, the probe will fly only 5,000 kilometers above the top of the cloud, and gravity will accelerate it to about kilometers per hour, creating a new spacecraft speed record.
At this rate, Juno can travel from Boston to Los Angeles in a minute.
On July 4, NASA\'s Juno spacecraft arrived at Jupiter to start 20-
Conduct a one-month survey of things under the thick clouds of the Earth. Source: JPL-
Caltech/NASAIn before and after each intimate contact with the mysterious Arctic and Antarctic of planet Juno Jupiter.
\"This is terra incognita, a planetary scientist,\" said Leigh Fletcher, a planetary scientist at the University of Leicester, England.
There is no season for Jupiter;
Its axis is almost perpendicular to its orbit.
This means that the Poles are barely visible on Earth.
Most other ships stay near the equator of Jupiter.
Pioneer 11 captured the blurry separation of the Arctic as he left Jupiter for Saturn.
The Ulysses sun probe flew over the poles on its way to the sun, but it neither carried the camera nor approached.
At the two poles, Juno will provide researchers with wooden Starlight equivalent to the light of the Earth.
Jupiter\'s light is just one of the tools scientists use to study Jupiter\'s magnetic field.
Most of the information Researchers already know about Aurora comes from Observatory closer to home, such as the Hubble Space Telescope.
These dancing bands of light are about 1,000 times more powerful than the width of our planet.
If there is any indication that the Cassini spacecraft will visit Saturn, there may be surprises waiting at the Jupiter poles.
Cassinacy hovers at the poles of Saturn.
\"It\'s like we\'re looking into a chaebol that flows into Saturn,\" Fletcher said . \".
\"We don\'t know if this is a common feature of a giant planet or a feature unique to Saturn.
As July 4 draws near, excitement is tempered by further waiting.
Juno\'s arrival in July will not be foreshadowed by new photos;
These instruments will be shut down when the spacecraft flies around the Earth and begins its first orbit.
Juno\'s next approach
It won\'t happen until the end of August. After two 53-
On November, Juno will circle around Jupiter and enter normal daily life.
With Juno\'s research, telescopes around the world and in space will also pay close attention to Jupiter.
When the probe passes through the clouds, it can only see a small part of the Earth at a time.
An international observation campaign called for orbital instruments such as the Large Observatory in Chile and Hawaii, the backyard amateur telescope and Hubble to see what happened to the rest of Jupiter\'s atmosphere.
\"If you add them together, you will have a richer, broader scientific return,\" Fletcher said . \".
\"When all eyes are focused on Jupiter, everyone is trying to make the most of this moment. ”About 1.
On February 2018, five years after Juno arrived at Jupiter, he will fall into death in Jupiter\'s atmosphere.
Galileo\'s mission ended in the same way in 2003.
Scientists don\'t want to risk running.
Between Juno and any cold satellite, like Europa, it can imagine life in the ocean of liquid water it\'s buried in.
Before the launch, if the microbes on Earth ride a circle, a crash on Europa could pollute an alien ecosystem.
Jupiter\'s next target is Jupiter. bound missions.
A nasa spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in early 2020, with the mission of repeatedly flying on ice.
The European Space Agency\'s Jupiter ice-capped satellite probe is scheduled to leave the Earth in June 2022 (
Arrived at Jupiter on 2030)
Study the possible habitable Jupiter satellite and eventually surround Ganymede, the largest satellite in the solar system.
Before that, Jupiter was in Juno\'s hands.
\"This is an important opportunity for us to understand something new about Jupiter,\" Fletcher said . \".
The legacy of this mission may extend beyond this vast planet, covering all aspects of the origin of life on Earth.
When Galileo\'s probe sneaked into Jupiter, it was found that its atmosphere contained more heavy elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, than the sun.
These elements are also key elements of life.
\"What Jupiter has is more about what we are made of,\" Bolton said . \".
What happened in the early solar system, he said, focused the components of life between planets, \"This is a profound problem . \".
\"I am not saying that we will answer this question, but we will get a part of this puzzle.
Take a piece of puzzle. Science News